Lemhi-Shoshone contributions which saved the Lewis & Clark Expedition more than once:
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Lemhi Pass pictured below.
August 13, 1805
Captain Lewis and members of the expedition encounter Lemhi Shoshone on the western side of Lemhi Pass, sixty mounted warriors engage this group as warning was echoed throughout the valley as intruders entered the homelands of the Lemhi- Shoshone.
August 16, 1805
Sacajawea is reunited with her people the Lemhi Shoshone, she soon recognizes her brother Chief Camehwait - emotional reunion. Sacajawea facilitates the dialogue to assist the expedition to acquire the essential horses and guide, to continue with the expedition over Lost Trail Pass.
Sacajawea continues with the expedition, the promises made by the Lewis and Clark to the Lemhi Shoshone is eminent on the expedition's success. Old Toby (Swooping Eagle) was also directed to assist the expedition to the land of the Nez Perce.
There were at least 3 times that Lemhi-Shoshone were crucial in helping Lewis & Clark to survive and succeed:
1. Sacagawea Lewis & Clark hired her husband, Touissant Charbonneau, at Mandan as an interpreter. She saved their instruments, books, medicines, and probably THE JOURNALS THEMSELVES when her husband swamped one of the canoes and the items were floating away. She also helped them when by coincidence her brother, Cameahwait, was the chief of the Lemhi-Shoshone. She guided the expedition only a few times; in the Three Forks area of SW Montana she began to recognize landmarks such as the Beaver head landmark so Lewis & Clark knew they were in the right area to find her people the Lemhi-Shoshone.
When the expedition broke into 4 separate groups, she guided Clark and 10 others towards the Yellowstone River, July 1806. She also found plants for Lewis to record and collect for Jefferson, and she provided edible plants for the Corps to eat. She and her baby also helped the Corps show Indians that they were peaceful and were not war parties. Indian war & raiding parties did not bring women or babies.
2. The Lemhi-Shoshone near Lemhi Pass sold Lewis & Clark 28 horses. By 1805 the Lemhi-Shoshone had about 700 (barb) horses, including some mules. Some of the mules had Spanish Brands, and Meriwether Lewis observed stirrups and other articles of Spanish tack (horse gear).
It took them 11 days for the expedition led by Old Toby to cross the mountains to the Nez Perce people, they were nearly dead and starved as it was. They ultimately ate 4 or 5 of the barb horses for food. (Lewis and Clark descendants are often teased by Lemhi-Shoshone: :"...that, we hope they don't eat our horses.") :P The lack of firearms left the Lemhi-Shoshone at the mercy of the Eastern American Indians who had guns. The Lemhi-Shoshone of 1805 fought on horseback and commonly used the bow and arrow, shield, lance and poggamoggon (a weapon with a leather-covered wood handle and a thong at one end tied to a 2-pound leather-covered round stone).
3. Old Toby - If Lewis & Clark would have tried to cross the Rockies without a guide, they would have perished for certain. The Lemhi-Shoshone provided them *Old Toby and he guided them through the Bitterroot mountains. The and Agaidikas and Tukudikas who make up the Lemhi-Shoshone Tribes are considered the first residents of the upper Lemhi Valley, dating back 12,000 years or more. Archaeological research indicates that buffalo, when present were hunted throughout the 12,000 years of Indian occupancy of the Lemhi Valley.
The Lemhi Pass thorium and rare-earth deposits in Idaho and Montana are the largest known in the U.S. Entitled "Mineralogy of the Lemhi Pass Thorium" the report says 100,000 tons of thorium oxide are "reasonably assured"...
DETROIT (ResourceInvestor.com) -- It was announced yesterday, Tuesday, February 26, 2008, in Salt Lake City, Utah, at a special session of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration’s annual national meeting entitled “Industrial Minerals: Rare Earths-Mining, Geology, and Metals” that a historically known-since 1949-very significant major high-grade hard rock source of thorium, presenting as thorium oxide rich mineral veins in Idaho and Montana, at sites in the geographic region known as the Lemhi Pass, has been “re-explored,” validated and quantitatively confirmed by geologists.
The specifics of the announcement were made in a paper jointly presented by geologists Richard Reed, a consultant with Idaho Engineering & Geology, Inc, and Dr. Virginia Gillerman of The Idaho Geological Survey, a state agency located in Boise, Idaho, as part of the special session named above. The paper was entitled: “Thorium and Rare Earths in the Lemhi Pass Region.” It contained the statement: “The claim holdings [being resurveyed] include the Last Chance vein in Montana, reportedly the largest and richest known thorium and rare earth vein in the United States.”
Thorium mineralization in the Lemhi Pass area, Lemhi County, Idaho Alfred L. Anderson The thorium mineralization in the Lemhi Pass area of southeastern Lemhi County, Idaho, is directed along simple to complex shear and fracture zones, and reopened copper and gold-quartz veins and lodes, in impure quartzitic and phyllitic rocks of the Precambrian Belt series. Some of the shear and fracture zones are more than 40 feet across and comprise broad zones of irregularly mineralized rock reaching distances to 2,000 feet in length. These zones contain notable concentrations of thorium and rare-earth elements along with considerable amounts of barium, alkali metals, calcium, iron, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon and meager amounts of columbium, uranium, and perhaps other related elements. Minerals identified so far include thorite, allanite, monazite, xenotime(?), euxenite(?), apatite, specularite, barite, alkali feldspar, calcite, biotite, phlogopite, sericite, chalcedony, and quartz. The most characteristic minerals are the thorite, specularite, barite, and quartz. The specularite and thorium-bearing minerals are intimately associated and were introduced into the deposits after the micas and in advance of the barite, feldspar, calcite, and quartz. Except for the specularite and quartz and in part the barite, feldspar, calcite, and thorite, the minerals are not distinguishable without the microscope.Some of the deposits contain several percent thoria and comparable amounts of rare-earth oxides, but the average is generally under 1 percent. The area has an appreciable reserve of lode thorium. Some of the deposits are in or are being brought into production.
THORIUM & RARE EARTH IEG REPORT
THORIUM & RARE EARTH RESERVES AND RESOURCES OF THORIUM ENERGY, INC., LEMHI PASS IDAHO AND MONTANA -APRIL 2008
Prepared for:Thorium Energy, Inc.Williams Investment Company19 East 200 SouthSuite 1080Salt Lake City, Utah 84111
Prepared by:Rich Reed, P.E., P.G., R.E.M. IDAHO ENGINEERING & GEOLOGY, INC.CONSTRUCTION, ENVIRONMENTAL & NATURAL RESERVES 1846 Spring Meadow LaneBoise, ID 83706FAX (208) 345-1307 CELLULAR (208) 863-2112 THORIUM & RARE EARTH RESERVES AND RESOURCES OF THORIUM ENERGY, INC., LEMHI PASS IDAHO AND MONTANA - APRIL 2008 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report summarizes thorium and rare earth vein deposits of unpatented mining claims of Thorium Energy, Inc. located in the Lemhi Pass Thorium District of Idaho and Montana. The report supersedes previous similar reports by Idaho Engineering & Geology, Inc. (IEG). It also provides an estimate of proven, indicated, and inferred reserves of thorium and total rare earth elements in the Lemhi Pass of Idaho and Montana of Thorium Energy Inc. unpatented mining claims based upon reported reserves as resources by the United State Geological Survey (USGS) and IERCO a former subsidiary company of Idaho Power Company. Thorium and rare earth deposits in the Lemhi Pass of Idaho and Montana are the largest known in the United States. The United State Geological Survey (USGS), the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the United States Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA), the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM), the Idaho Bureau of Mines & Geology (IBM&G) – Idaho Geological Survey (IGS), Montana Bureau of Mines & Geology (MBM&G) have performed a number of investigations throughout the years in greatly contributing to the current understanding of the thorium deposits in the Lemhi Pass. In addition many private individuals, and a number of companies, including Nuclear Fuels and Rare Metals Corporation, Sawyer Petroleum and Union Pacific Railroad, Dow Chemical, Tenneco Oil Company, and Idaho Power Company to name a few have also actively explored and evaluated the mineral deposits in the Pass over the years and also have greatly contributed to their understanding.
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